We offer highly customized editing for narrative non-fiction writers and academics working on book manuscripts, essays, and journal articles. We also support professionals and businesses with articles, white papers, case studies, and blogs.

We specialize in the following subject areas where we have specialized knowledge and/or formal training:

  • Science
  • Technology
  • Social Science
  • Sustainability
  • Green Energy
  • Nature and Environment
  • South Korea (politics, culture, history, society, food, traditional drinks)
  • Wine (history, culture, viticulture, vinification, wine regions, styles of wine)

Types of Editing

Structural Editing

Assessing and shaping draft material to improve its organization and content. Changes may be suggested to or drafted for the writer. Structural editing may include:

  • revising, reordering, cutting, or expanding material
  • writing original material
  • determining whether permissions are necessary for third-party material
  • recasting material that would be better presented in another form, or revising material for a different medium (such as revising print copy for web copy)
  • clarifying plot, characterization, or thematic elements

Also known as substantive editing, manuscript editing, content editing, or developmental editing.

 

Stylistic Editing

Editing to clarify meaning, ensure coherence and flow, and refine the language. It includes:

  • eliminating jargon, clichés, and euphemisms
  • establishing or maintaining the language level appropriate for the intended audience, medium, and purpose
  • adjusting the length and structure of sentences and paragraphs
  • establishing or maintaining tone, mood, style, and authorial voice or level of formality

Also known as line editing (which may also include copy editing).

 

Copy Editing

Editing to ensure correctness, accuracy, consistency, and completeness. It includes:

  • editing for grammar, spelling, punctuation, and usage
  • checking for consistency and continuity of mechanics and facts, including anachronisms, character names, and relationships
  • editing tables, figures, and lists
  • notifying designers of any unusual production requirements
  • developing a style sheet or following one that is provided
  • correcting or querying general information that should be checked for accuracy 

It may also include:

  • marking levels of headings and the approximate placement of art
  • Canadianizing or other localizing
  • converting measurements
  • providing or changing the system of citations
  • editing indexes
  • obtaining or listing permissions needed
  • checking front matter, back matter, and cover copy
  • checking web links

Note that “copy editing” is often loosely used to include stylistic editing, structural editing, fact checking, or proofreading.

 

Proofreading

Proofreading

Examining material after layout or in its final format to correct errors in textual and visual elements. The material may be read in isolation or against a previous version. It includes checking for:

  • adherence to design
  • minor mechanical errors (such as spelling mistakes or deviations from style sheet)
  • consistency and accuracy of elements in the material (such as cross-references, running heads, captions, web page heading tags, hyperlinks, and metadata)

It may also include:

  • distinguishing between printer’s, designer’s, or programmer’s errors and writer’s or editor’s alterations
  • copyfitting
  • flagging or checking locations of art
  • inserting page numbers or checking them against content and page references

Note that proofreading is checking a work after editing; it is not a substitute for editing.